There is a useful guide to read which discusses the a structured approach for designing data-centric solutions on Microsoft Azure. The two different approaches are
Traditional RDBMS workloads.
These designs are for online transaction processing (OLTP) and online analytical processing (OLAP).
Big data solutions. This design looks at big data architecture to handle the ingestion, processing, and analysis of data that is too large or complex for traditional database systems.
There is useful pages to read on machine learning at scale and non relational data.